Rio de Janeiro Guide - An introduction to the city of Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro Guide - In the southeastern region of Brazil's third most populous and definitely the most popular state, the State of Rio de Janeiro, lays its beautiful and unique coastal capital, Rio de Janeiro.
Partly surrounded by well preserved forests, from the south by the Atlantic Ocean, from the east by Guanabara Bay or Baía de Guanabara and from the west by Sepetiba Bay or Baía de Sepetiba, intersected by mountains and hills, at the approximate aptitude of 5 meters above sea level, this remarkable city is referred as one of the main tourist destinations in the Southern Hemisphere, known for its famous carnivals, attractive beaches, samba music and impressive football teams. - Rio de Janeiro Guide
History - Rio de Janeiro Guide
It all began on 1st January of the year of 1502, when Portuguese exploring expeditions disembarked on the Guanabara Bay. They named it “The River of January”, from which directly derives the name of Rio de Janeiro.
In early years, the city’s economical growth was mostly based on the sugarcane plantations, but after the discovery of gold and diamonds in the nearby region of Minas Gerais, many other European countries struggled to seize Rio de Janeiro for many years, because of its geostrategic importance, thus resulting in shifting regional capital from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro in the year of 1763.
By the 19th century, Rio de Janeiro was threatened by the economic crisis, due to strong competitive sugarcane market in South America and significantly decreased stashes of gold and diamond. In order to avoid the economical crisis, Portuguese royal family resettled in Rio de Janeiro and the city began with coffee exports. The results of these measures were more than obvious. Instead of economical crisis, the city faced the economical infrastructural expansion.
In the year of 1889, Brazil has achieved independence from Portugal and Rio de Janeiro was declared as its capital. This way, Rio de Janeiro became the political, economical and cultural centre of Brazil, along with further developments and expansions.
Rio de Janeiro was divided into three zones; the Central Zone, which was demolished in order to become Central Business District; the North Zone, which became an industrial area and South Zone, where only wealthy people lived.
After World War II, Rio de Janeiro’s population bloomed rapidly in numbers, skyscrapers were built, bridges were constructed along with free-ways and industrial economy took place instead of agriculture’s. In order for the economic and financial pressure on Rio de Janeiro, during 1960’s the capital of Brazil was moved to Brasilia. To this day, this city is developing through the industry, service and tourism.
Rio de Janeiro is spread all over an area of total 1255.3 km2. It measures 70 km from east to west and 44 km from north to south. Rio de Janeiro has a 246.22 km in coastline length, which includes Atlantic Ocean coastline and two bays, Guanabara Bay or Baía de Guanabara and Sepetiba Bay or Baía de Sepetiba.
Rio de Janeiro has a tropical, warm and humid climate. Average summer daily temperatures goes around 30°C, sometimes temperatures periodically rises to a high of 40°C and above, but the evenings are much cooler due to heavy and rapid rains.
This city is referred as the second largest Brazil’s finance and service industries, as well as industrial production, such as production of processed foods, textiles, pharmaceuticals, furniture, chemicals, petroleum and clothing. Rio de Janeiro also contains a several research facilities, medical centers and hospitals, such as Hospital Copa D’or, Hospital Samaritano and Hospital Sao Jose.
This city record the most international visits in South America with approximately 2.81 million visitors per year, which makes it the Brazil’s main tourist attraction. With more than 50 museums, its worldwide popularity of music and literature, combination of historic and modern architecture and its annual Carnival celebration, Rio de Janeiro is referred as the Brazil’s cultural capital.
Landmarks - Rio de Janeiro Guide
Rio de Janeiro Guide - After five years of construction works, using reinforced concrete and soapstone, one of the most iconic landmarks of Rio de Janeiro, a majestic 30 meters high statue of Christ the Redeemer or Cristo Redentor, was built in the year of 1931 and placed on the peak of the Corcovado Mountain, with his arms spread out.
This marvelous statue is enlisted as one of the Seven Wonders of the New World and it provides astonishing panoramic views of Rio de Janeiro. There is also a remarkable Sugarloaf Mountain or Pão de Açúcar, located above the Guanabar Bay, pointed toward Atlantic Ocean. Its name derives from the shape of clay molds, which was used for sugar transportation in 16th century.
One of the Rio de Janeiro’s remarkable landmarks is also an absolutely unique Tijuca National Park or Parque Nacional da Tijuca, which is considered as one of the world’s largest urban forests. It spreads all over the area of 32 km2 and represents a hand-planted rainforest made in the second half of 19th century to prevent incoming deforestation, erosion and lack of water supplies due to intensive extensions of coffee and sugar plantations in the area.
A beautiful set of world famous steps, made as a result of Jorge Selarón’s efforts to renovate friable steps in front of his house, the Selaron Steps or Escadaria Selarón also represents one of the memorable landmarks. During annual Rio Carnival, Rio de Janeiro is also known by hosting competitions between various samba schools at the unique Sambadrome named Sambódromo Marquês de Sapucaí, which represents the parade area.
General specifications - Rio de Janeiro Guide
Rio de Janeiro Guide - According to census in the year of 2010, urban population in Rio de Janeiro is estimated to 11.616.000 inhabitants, metropolis area population is estimated to 12.090.607 inhabitants, with density of 5377 people per square kilometer.
Rio de Janeiro population’s literacy level is above national average, with 1033 primary schools, 370 secondary schools 53 University-preparatory schools, six major universities and 47 private high schools. This city is divided into four districts, which are named Centro, Zona Sul, Zona Norte, and the largest district, Zona Oeste.
Rio de Janeiro’s prices are evaluated as very high, while prices on groceries vary from moderate low to average, depending on the location.
Places to go - Rio de Janeiro Guide
Rio de Janeiro Guide - In addition to mentioned landmarks above, Rio de Janeiro is also a city of many tourist attractions, such as guided tours of the city neighborhoods, the romantic love cruises through the Sepetiba Bay, the Guanabara Bay and the islands of Angra dos Reis. Rio de Janeiro was one of the cities, which hosted of FIFA World Cup football event, during which it provided amazing games and the final at Maracanã Stadium. This marvelous stadium will also played a role in hosting the 2016 Summer Olympics Opening Ceremonies. The most popular Rio de Janeiro’s beaches are the Ipanema beach and the astonishing Copacabana beach.
The beautiful Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro is located on the edge of the Tijuca Forest. These gardens includes 5000 herbal specimen, where can be found all Amazonian tropical species.
Besides the famous Rio Carnival, there are a numerous events such as Rio’s international film festival, which runs last week of September through the first week of October, and the annual 42 km marathon, which is set along the ocean coast. Another remarkable historic place is the Summer Palace of the former Brazilian Emperors and glasshouse or Palacio Cristal, both located in The Imperial City, also known as Petrópolis.
More about Rio de Janeiro